- The most common reason for a colposcopy is when there is an abnormal pap smear result. Pap smears screen for cervical cancer and pre-cancer changes, so if the results come back indicating that there could be certain cell changes, a further check would be required. This is when the doctor will conduct colposcopy, during which he/she can perform cervical biopsy.
- Colposcopy can also be done if a woman has persistent bleeding after intercourse, or when her HPV DNA testing is positive for high-risk HPV like Type 16 and Type 18.
Colposcopy cannot be done during your menstruation, the ideal time would be after your menses have ended. Also, if there is an active vaginal infection, it is best to treat the infection before doing a colposcopy.
Although the appearance of the cervical area reflected from colposcopy can give an indication of the condition, a biopsy is still essential for a confirmatory diagnosis by the gynaecologist.
Punch biopsy will be conducted, where a small piece of tissue, about 1-2mm, is “punched” out (extracted) in a matter of seconds. It might be slightly painful at the time of extraction, hence the doctor will usually ask the patient to cough at the same time. There are two reasons to that – firstly, it pushes the cervix towards the biopsy forceps and aids in the procedure, secondly, it helps to distract the patient from the pain.